HTTP has a very thorough and well supported caching mechanism, but in this age of the dynamic Web page, it often goes unused when it is needed the most. So what do we, as Web programmers, need to do to make sure our pages are cached correctly? Let's have a look.
What is the point of caching? The idea is that on the Web, it is often better to have stale data than to wait for the network. Data only changes every so often and even if it has changed, it's not always important that the client has the latest data, so caching it either at the client, or at an intermediary, isn't a problem and should infact be a good idea. RFC2616 says:
Caching would be useless if it did not significantly improve performance. The goal of caching in HTTP/1.1 is to eliminate the need to send requests in many cases, and to eliminate the need to send full responses in many other cases. The former reduces the number of network round-trips required for many operations; we use an "expiration" mechanism for this purpose. The latter reduces network bandwidth requirements; we use a "validation" mechanism for this purpose.
Allowing clients and intermediaries to cache our pages will lighten the load on our servers and create a faster user experience. One of the problems with dynamic Web applications is that your Web server thinks it is sending new data every request and so can't set the correct caching headers, you need to do a little extra work yourself within your application to make sure caching is working for you.
There are two types of caching in HTTP, we'll look at both, how they work, how they work together, and how to make sure your Web application is taking advantage of them.
The expiration model is a way for the server to say how long a requested resource stays fresh for, user agents should cache the resource response and re-use it until its cache is no longer fresh.
Expiration is excellent for resources that change at known times or the change very rarely and whose staleness does not matter. For example, images and style sheets that are used across a site often do not change very often and so should be sent with a expiration date of at least 24 hours. The user agent will then only download them once, no matter how many pages of the site they visit.
If we are serving resources from a dynamic data source, for example say we have a graphic that portrays the current weather outside, if we know that the data only updates once an hour, we can set the expiration date to an hour so that clients only request it once per hour.
The simpliest way of doing this is with the HTTP Expires header, it just contains the date and time of when the resource will become stale:
The Expires header has a few problems like requiring the server and client to have clocks that are in sync. So HTTP 1.1 replaced it with the Cache-Control header that offers more flexibility:
The cache control header has a number of clauses that can be used to control the way the client caches the resource.
The validation model allows a client to ask the server whether a cached version of a resource is still fresh. If the client doesn't have a fresh cached version, the server will respond with a fresh version of the resource, while if it does, the server will say so and send nothing.
This is useful as it allows our server to tell a client it already has the freshest version and not do any processing. If the resource is dynamic, we can save our server from having to do all the work involved in producing the response since the client already has it in its cache.
Like the expiration model, there are two HTTP headers that control validation, the Last-Modified header is defined in HTTP 1.0 and sends the client the date/time when the resource was last modified:
When a client sends a "If-Modified-Since" request header, the date/time sent in that header can be compared with the resources last modified date/time, and if it matches, a 304 Not Modified HTTP response sent.
The Last-Modified header suffers the same problems as the Expires header, and thus was replaced in HTTP 1.1 with the Etag header. An Etag is a string that uniquely identifies a resource, they should be generated by the server in a way as to change whenever the resource does, a common Etag value is the MD5 hash of the resource or of the resources URL and its modified date/time stamp.
When a client sends a "If-None-Match" request header, the Etag value in that header should be compared to the resource and if it matches, a 304 Not Modified response sent.
So to make sure your dynamic resource behaves well when it comes to HTTP caching, you need to support validation and optionally send a expiration header from within your script.
Supporting validation in PHP this is pretty simple, sending the correct headers is just a case of:
And doing the actual validation just requires a function like:
If you want to tell clients when your resource expires, you need a function like:
As well as HTTP caching, your Web application may also want to use various application caching mechanisms. If you're hitting a database often you may want to place an object cache like Memcache in front of it so that often requested data can be cached in Web server memory rather than being re-requested from the database. If your dynamic app has lots of pages that don't update very often you may want to place a reverse proxy like Squid in front of it to save re-generation of all non-changed pages across users. The setting up and using of other caches are beyond the scope of this article, an intro to using Squid as a reverse proxy can be found here and the PHP memcached extensions documentation is here.
For more info on HTTP caching, check out section 10 of RFC2616 and for an easier read, have a look at Mark Nottingham's Caching Tutorial.